What is a deep cycle battery?

If you are looking for a reliable and long-lasting for your solar system, RVs, or golf carts, you may have come across the term “deep cycle battery”. But what exactly is a deep cycle battery. In these blog posts, I will explain what the deep cycle batteries are, their types and applications, and how to charge them. Also, I will also give some recommendations of the best deep cycle battery for various needs.

What is a deep cycle battery?

According to Wikipedia, a deep-cycle battery is a battery designed to be regularly deeply discharged using most of its capacity.

Deep cycle batteries provide stable power over a longer period of time. This is important because other types of batteries discharge at high currents and only provide a fraction of their capacity. In contrast, deep-cycle batteries discharge slowly and continuously, the DoD of deep cycle battery up to about 80% , and therefore run longer.

Types of deep cycle batteries

01 Deep cycle AGM battery

AGM batteries have a glass mat that absorbs the electrolyte. This makes the electrolyte more evenly distributed throughout the battery, which helps to improve performance and lifespan.

02 Deep Cycle Lithium ion battery

Lithium ion battery is the newest and most advanced type of deep-cycle battery. This type of deep cycle battery uses lithium-based compounds as the electrodes and an organic solvent as the electrolyte.

Deep cycle lithium ion battery has the highest energy density, power output, and cycle life of all the types, and it is also lightweight, compact, and environmentally friendly. It does not suffer from memory effect, self-discharge, or sulfation, and it can be charged and discharged rapidly. The deep cycle lithium ion phosphate battery requires a battery management system BMS to prevent overheating, overcharging, or over-discharging.

SVC 12V deep cycle battery 100ah/200ah

 12V deep cycle battery

03 Deep Cycle Gel Battery

The deep cycle gel battery is a type of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery that uses a gel-like electrolyte that prevents leakage and evaporation. It is more resistant to extreme temperatures, vibrations, and shocks than FLA batteries, but it also has lower capacity, higher cost, and shorter lifespan.

04 Floor Deep Cycle Lead Acid Battery

Floor lead-acid batteries are the oldest and most common type of deep-cycle battery. It consists of lead plates immersed in a liquid electrolyte solution. The deep cycle lead-acid battery is relatively cheap, durable, and easy to maintain, but it also requires regular watering, venting, and equalizing.

05 Sealed Lead-Acid Battery

Sealed lead acid batteries or valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries  are also known as maintenance-free batteries. They do not require the addition of distilled water, making them easier to maintain. However, they are more expensive than flooded deep-cycle batteries.

SVC deep cycle sealed lead-acid battery

deep cycle lead-acid Battery

Applications of Deep Cycle Battery

Deep cycle batteries are designed for repeated and deep discharge. They are often used in applications that require a constant, stable power supply, such as

deep cycle battery for solar system
svc deep cycle lithium iron battery

How to charge a deep cycle battery?

There are several ways to charge a deep cycle battery, depending on the type of battery, the available power source, and the desired charging speed. Some of the common ways to charge a deep cycle battery are:

01 Generator

A generator can provide a high current and voltage to charge a deep cycle battery quickly, but it also consumes fuel and produces noise and emissions. A generator should be connected to a suitable battery charger that has temperature compensation and a multi-stage charging algorithm to prevent overcharging or damaging the battery.

02 Solar Panels

Deep cycle batteries can be charged by solar power that is the eco-friendly way. When going to charge the deep cycle battery with solar energy, you need the several components, including solar panels, charge controller, and inverters. SVC solar inverter with MPPT charge controller. Charging the deep cycle battery with solar in spare time can extend its lifespan.

03 Utility Grid

Another method to charge a deep cycle battery is by the AC power from the utility grid, with suitable AC to DC battery charger. Be notice that  lithium batteries cannot be charged with a regular charger designed for lead acid batteries.

How Long to Charge a Deep Cycle Battery?

Here is a general formula to estimate the charging time is to divide the the amp-hour rating of deep cycle battery by the charger’s amp rating, and then add 10% for the final stage of charging.

For example, if you have a 100 Ah deep-cycle battery and a 10 A charger, it would take about 11 hours to fully charge the battery (100 / 10 x 1.1 = 11).

However, the time taking to charge a deep cycle battery depends on several factors:

Depth of Discharge(DOD) of the deep cycle battery: The deeper the battery is discharged, the longer it will take to recharge.

Types and Quality of the Battery: Different types of deep cycle batteries, such as flooded, gel, AGM, or lithium, have different charging characteristics and requirements. For example, lithium batteries can charge faster and deeper than lead-acid batteries, but they also need a special charger and a battery management system to prevent damage.

Types and Quality of the Battery: Different types of chargers, such as smart, manual, or trickle, have different charging modes and algorithms.

Temperature and Climate: the optimal temperature range for charging a deep cycle battery is between 10°C and 30°C. Higher or lower temperatures can affect the battery’s chemistry and reduce its charging efficiency and capacity.

Hong long do deep cycle batteries lasts?

Different types of deep cycle batteries has various lifespans and cycle life. The average of deep cycle battery is 3- 6 years, but vary from 1 to 8 years depending on the quality and degree of use.

The lifespan and runtime also depend on the depth of discharge (DOD), which is the percentage of the battery’s capacity that is used before recharging.

Floor deep cycle lead acid battery lasts from 4 to 8 years if cycle to 50% DOD. The flooded lead acid battery typically has 250 to 1200 cycles

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery lasts from 2 to 5 years if cycled to a 50% DOD. It can release 500 to 1200 cycles.

AGM deep cycle battery lasts from 4 to 7 years with DOD 50%

Lithium ion deep cycle battery lasts from 5 to 10 year with DOD 80%, ensuring a range between 2000 to 5000 in general. SVC deep cycle lithium ion phosphate battery supports over 6000 cycles at 80% DOD with 10 years life span.

Relevant Article: What Does Amp Hour Mean?

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